Culinary grains commonly undergo some degree o processing milling) before they reach the kitchen. The milling process either strips away or scores the bran and may also remove the kernel’s germ. In addition to refining, milling may also break the grain into small pieces or grind it into a meal.
There are various levels of preliminary processing. For example, brown rice that reaches the kitchen has undergone little refining; white rice, on the other hand, has been stripped of its bran and may be polished or converted as well. . . .
The grain’s most nutrientrich part is the endosperm, which serves as a storage facility for the carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals, and for some of the proteins and oils. Humans rely on the endosperm’s nutrients; even if the germ and the bran are removed, the endosperm itself is still a potent energy source.
The techniques covered here are for cooking the major culinary grains-rice, barley, bulgur wheat, couscous, cornmeal, and certain grains used as side dishes.…